Treatment planning is the key for both adults and children to ensure optimum success in orthodontic
treatment is achieved. Orthodontic treatment is concerned with the treatment of improper bites and
Crooked teeth. The dentist usually uses braces and clear aligners to set the patient's teeth. The dentist
work on reconstructing the entire face rather than focusing only on teeth.

In diagnosis and treatment planning, we must
1. Recognize the various characteristics of a malocclusion or dent facial deformity;
2. Define the nature of the problem, including the aetiology
3. Design a treatment strategy based on the specific needs and desires of the individual
4. Present the treatment strategy to the patient in such a way that the patient fully understands the
Ramifications of his/her decision For comprehensive orthodontic treatment, metal wires ("Jushi") are inserted into orthodontic brackets (braces), which can be made from stainless steel or a more aesthetic ceramic material. The wires interact with the brackets to move teeth into the desired positions.

Additional components—including removable appliances ("plates"), headgear, expansion appliances, and
Many other devices—may also be used to move teeth and jaw bones. Functional appliances, for example,
are used in growing patients (age 5 to 14) with the aim of modifying the jaw dimensions and relationship if
These are altered. This therapy, termed Dent facial Orthopaedics, is frequently followed by fixed
multibracket therapy ("full braces") to align the teeth and refine the occlusion.

After a course of active orthodontic treatment, patients will typically wear retainers (orthodontic devices),
which help to maintain the teeth in their improved positions while surrounding bone reforms around them.
The retainers are generally worn full-time for a period, anywhere from just a few days to a year, then part-time (typically, nightly during sleep) for as long as the Dentist recommends. It is possible for the teeth
to stay aligned without regular retainer wear. However, there are many reasons teeth will crowd as a
person ages, whether or not the individual ever experienced orthodontic treatment; thus there is no
guarantee that teeth will stay aligned without retention. For this reason, many the dentists prescribe night-time or part-time retainer wears for many years after orthodontic treatment (potentially for life). Adult
orthodontic patients are more likely to need lifetime retention.

As a parent, you want to safeguard the health of your child’s teeth for as long as possible. Ensuring you’re seeing a specialist Dentist for their orthodontic care can help you to feel confident that you’re doing everything in your power to give them the best possible treatment and care. If you want to get the best treatment for your child but are uncertain about what orthodontic treatment actually entails, here is a step-by-step guide to your orthodontic journey.

Step 1 – Initial assessment
We recommend taking your child to see a Dentist for an initial assessment around age seven. This assessment is beneficial if your child will require early intervention, such as in cases where thumb/digit sucking has distorted their bite, for premature tooth loss due to trauma or decay, or any bite issues that are best addressed at a younger age. However, if you’ve missed this early milestone it is never too late to bring them in for an initial assessment.

During this appointment your Dentist will perform a thorough examination of their face, teeth and bite and might also take a panoramic (OPG) x-ray of your child’s teeth to assess their growth and development. If early intervention is required, they will explain what is needed and the key milestones for their treatment. Alternatively, your Dentist will suggest an age or developmental stage (e.g. after their last permanent tooth comes in) to commence their treatment.

Step 2 – Understanding your options
Depending on your child’s case, there could be several different treatment options that may be suitable. To achieve the best results, your Dentist will make their expert recommendations based on which option will be most effective. They will also be able to advice on the expected cost and duration of the treatment, as well as explaining why some options are more beneficial than others.

Step 3 – Ask for a quote
Your Dentist can prepare a quote for the duration of your child’s treatment to help you to prepare for the years to come. If required, their office can also help you to arrange a payment plan to spread out the cost of your child’s treatment.

Step 4 – Commence treatment
Depending on the type of treatment you and your Dentist have decided on for your child, there may be a short waiting period while custom appliances are created. In the first appointment of their treatment, your Dentist may make a digital or plaster mould of your child’s teeth to assist with the creation of these appliances. If your child requires a fixed appliance (that is, the appliance can’t be removed by the patient), then spacers may need to be placed between the back teeth to help the molar bands fit comfortably around the teeth.

Fitting your child’s braces can take up to 1 hour as the individual brackets are carefully attached to the teeth and thorough instructions are given to help with their care. The process will be full of new sensations and they may experience some discomfort for a couple of days afterwards, so keep some pain relief and ulcer wax handy, and ask your Dentist for their advice to help make the transition as easy as possible.

Step 5 – Caring for their braces
Helping your child to learn how to properly care for their braces can ensure you do not need to make additional appointments to have wires replaced or brackets reattached. Before leaving their first appointment, your Dentist will demonstrate how to properly brush and floss their teeth and around their braces.

You should also stick to soft foods for a couple of days, such as soups, yoghurts and bananas, while the teeth are adjusting to the appliances. Also, staying away from hard foods like nuts and hard muesli bars for the duration of their treatment will help prevent breakages. If your child plays contact sports, you should ask your Dentist about the best types of mouthguard for them to wear as they may need to get one custom fitted while they undergo treatment.

Step 6 – Maintenance
It is likely that you will need to see your family’s specialist Dentist on a regular basis (e.g. every 6-8 weeks) so your child can have their braces adjusted. This may involve changing or relying the arch wires or adding elastics to help progress them to their next stage of treatment.

Having a specialist Dentist supervise their treatment ensures you have an expert in teeth straightening and jaw development on hand to monitor any changes that need to be made safely.

Step 7 – After care
It isn’t the end of the road when your child’s braces are ready to come off. Once their braces are removed they will be supplied with retainers that they’ll need to wear according to the Dentist’s instructions to make sure that the teeth are held in place. The retainers are able to be removed when eating or cleaning their teeth, with the wearing time often being reduced gradually as the teeth and bite become more stable.

1-Healthier Gums
Properly positioned teeth are easier to brush and floss than teeth that are crowded, crooked, or spaced too far apart. Properly aligned teeth can help gums “fit” more tightly around them, which may lead to better periodontal health.

Straight teeth are easier to keep clean with basic brushing and flossing. Food, bacteria and other debris can become lodged between teeth that are misaligned. It can be difficult to reach in and around irregular areas created by misaligned teeth with a toothbrush or dental floss. Over time this debris and bacteria can cause inflammation of the gums or tooth decay. Having cosmetic dentistry to straighten your teeth means that teeth are easier to clean and your risk of dental problems related to inflammation and decay are diminished.

2-Decreased Risk of Abnormal Wear
Properly aligned teeth can be less stressful on the supporting bone jaw joints.
Whether you require minor or major adjustments to your teeth, with crowding, spacing or a relapse after braces, Invisalign® is a simple solution to give you the smile you desire.

3-Perfect Smile
For many people, straight teeth are synonymous with the perfect smile. This is why millions of people seek out cosmetic dentistry services every year. Did you know, however, that having straight teeth yields more benefits than simply a perfect smile? Straight teeth can actually promote better overall oral health and physical well-being. Here’s a look at some of the lesser known benefits of straight teeth.

4-Less frequent headaches and neck pain

One or more misaligned tooth can put excessive pressure on your gums. The pain caused by this pressure can extend into your jawbone. When this happens, the pressure can cause headaches and neck and back pain. The good news is that cosmetic dentistry can help to straighten your teeth. Once your teeth are back in proper alignment, the pressure on your gums is alleviated and any pain in your head, neck and back caused by misalignment usually diminishes.

So, it is clear that the benefits of straightening teeth with cosmetic dentistry extend beyond achieving a perfect smile. If you are interested in knowing more about dental procedures to straighten teeth, call our friendly reception staff today and make an appointment to see your dentist

5-Reduced wear and tear on teeth

Having misaligned or crowded teeth can cause extensive wear and tear on your teeth. Over time this wear and tear can affect the enamel on your teeth and can cause tooth disfiguration. This is especially true if you have one or more teeth that protrude from the rest of your teeth. Cosmetic dentistry helps by putting your teeth back into their correct alignment and ensuring that all teeth are subjected to a similar level of pressure as you use them.

Straight teeth – the benefits are not just cosmetic

Metal braces/Traditional braces
Ceramic Braces
Lingual Braces

What are my options?
Today's orthodontics offer more kinds of braces than ever before. Check out your options:

1-Metal braces/Traditional braces
These are the metal brackets and wires that most people picture when they hear the word "braces." However, modern brackets are smaller and less noticeable than the notorious "metal-mouth" braces that many adults remember. Plus, new heat-activated arch wires use your body heat to help teeth move more quickly and less painfully than in the past.
Benefits of metal braces:
They’re one of the most effective method of teeth straightening, especially if you require extensive treatment, and are more cost effective than other options, least expensive type; coloured bands give kids a chance to express themselves
Drawbacks of metal braces:
Many people put off getting their teeth fixed because they want to avoid the look of metal braces. Most noticeable type of braces

2-Ceramic braces
Ceramic braces are popular among adults and older teens that are looking for an effective teeth straightening option with a less obvious appearance. They are less noticeable than standard metal braces because they have clear or tooth-coloured brackets and optional tooth-coloured wires.

While ceramic braces are much less visible, they work in precisely the same way as metal braces, producing the same results in the same treatment time.

Benefits of ceramic braces:
Ceramic braces are one of the most highly effective straightening methods available. They are also far less visible than standard metal braces due to the non-metallic ceramic material they are made from.

Drawbacks of ceramic braces:
Ceramic braces sometimes cost a little more than their metal counterparts, although this is best established on a case by case basis. They can be slightly larger than metal braces but, due to their colour, are usually less obvious.

Some types of ceramic brackets may be prone to staining, but overall most ceramic brackets should not absorb stains. The modules or elastic ring which hold the wire in the bracket are more likely to stain but these are changed at every orthodontic adjustment appointment.

3-Lingual Braces
Benefits of Lingual Braces: Invisible from outside
Drawbacks of Lingual Braces: Difficult to clean; more expensive; not appropriate for severe cases; can be more uncomfortable at first; regular adjustments take longer and are more difficult than with traditional braces, they can take some time to get used to and may impact on speech and eating more than regular braces, which is one of the reasons many people opt for alternative treatments.
Learn More Lingual Braces Lingual braces are the same as traditional metal braces, except that the brackets and wires are placed on the inside of teeth

Invisalign consists of a series of 18 to 30 custom-made, mouth guard-like clear plastic aligners. The aligners are removable and are replaced every 2 weeks.

Benefits of clear aligners: Almost invisible; Patients can eat and drink whatever they want and Clear aligners are a more comfortable corrective method than braces because there is less material on the teeth and no wires. When properly cared for they are virtually invisible. They are also more hygienic than braces and can be removed to eat and brush your teeth.

Drawbacks of clear aligners: Will not work for serious dental problems; only available for adults and teens, not children; more expensive option; can be easily lost and costly to replace; treatment may potentially take longer. They require discipline to ensure the treatment is effective and may not provide predictable treatment results for some complicated orthodontic problems

They also play an active role in correcting overcrowded and misaligned teeth. This is important because an abnormal bite (also known as “malocclusion”) may cause other problems, such as impaired plaque removal around misaligned teeth, which can lead to gum inflammation and cavities.

Taking good care of braces can help prevent damage to the braces themselves and the teeth underneath as well as make the braces more comfortable to wear. Learning the basics of orthodontic care will help you follow your dental professional's recommendations to keep your teeth and gums healthy during the time you’re wearing braces.

You should be prepared for the fact that taking care of your teeth will be more difficult once you get braces. Braces have countless tiny spaces to trap food, and this trapped food causes plaque, which can lead to many other dental problems. Because of this, it's very important to brush your teeth after every meal (snacks count, too), to rinse with mouthwash, and to floss at least once a day.

This may seem tedious or excessive, but neglecting your oral hygiene can lead to serious oral health problems, force you to spend additional time in braces, or cause unsightly staining on your teeth. The extra responsibility needed to care for braces properly is something that both you and your child should be prepared for.

All of our electric toothbrushes have the Daily Clean mode, which walks you through a full two-minute clean, but some also include a variety of modes. The Deep Clean mode guides you through an extra minute on your routine to make sure you spend enough time removing plaque around your braces, while the Massage mode lightly cleans gums to help protect against gingivitis.

-The Basics: Brushing and Flossing

Careful cleaning is required with braces, because plaque bacteria are easily trapped inside and around them. The following procedure will make daily brushing and flossing both simple and effective.

1- Prepare to brush. Take off elastics and any other removable parts of your orthodontic appliance.
2- Clean your braces. Hold your brush at a 45-degree angle to clean around the wires and pins of your braces. Brush from the top of each wire down to the bottom. Take your time to ensure that all plaque and debris are removed, and that you work all the way around upper and lower teeth.
3- Brush your teeth. Clean each tooth individually. First, place your brush at a 45-degree angle the gum line, and then apply gentle pressure as you move in a circular motion. Do this for about 10 seconds. Use the same brushing action on all outer and inner tooth surfaces, tilting the brush as needed to better reach the insides of smaller front teeth.
4- Floss once a day. Have your dental professional show you the best way to floss, or follow the instructions on the product package. You may also want to use a flossing product designed for braces and orthodontic work, like a floss threader.
5- Rinse and check your teeth. Rinse thoroughly with water or mouth rinse, and examine your teeth and braces in the mirror.
6- Professional Care: Dentist And Dentist Visits.

-Cleaning Different Kinds of Braces
In order to properly clean around braces, it can be helpful to know some of the most common types.
Most brackets are made of either stainless steel or a clear or tooth-coloured plastic. The brackets are usually attached to the fronts of the teeth and a wire is passed through each one and adjusted by the Dentist to provide the correct pressure.

Lingual Brackets: These brackets are placed on the inside (tongue-facing side) of the teeth so they are not visible. However, they can be more difficult to keep clean.

Traditional bands: These types of braces involve a metal band wrapped around each tooth to which the bracket is secured, but this style is rarely used today.

No matter what type of braces you have, the goal is the same—to apply constant pressure over time to move your teeth into correct alignment. Use floss threader or an orthodontic floss with a built-in tongue threader to help thread the floss under the main wire of the braces.

In addition, you can maintain your dental health while you’re wearing braces by using an interdental cleaner as an alternative to a standard toothbrush.

1- Prepare a kit with a toothbrush, toothpaste, and floss (to use between meals), wax, and lip balm (for dry lips). Carry this with you at all times.
2- If you have hooks, wear your rubber bands all of the time (except for when you're brushing your teeth). This may hurt sometimes, but it will stop the hooks from digging into or getting caught on your cheeks, as well as make sure that your treatment moves as quickly as possible.
3- If one of your wires or brackets breaks, don't panic. Don't try to bend the wire or pull it out, which could make things worse. Just cover any sharp edges with wax or wet cotton, and call your Dentist as soon as possible.
4- Even if you're self-conscious about your braces, don't be afraid to smile – people actually notice your mouth more when it's clear that you're trying to hide something. Plus, braces are very common, so there's no reason to be ashamed of them.

Unfortunately, there aren't many alternatives to braces, but there are alternatives to the metal braces that many people immediately picture. You can get clear or tooth-coloured brackets and wires, which make braces much less noticeable. Some patients are also eligible for Invisalign instead of traditional braces. There are also other types of removable appliances that can help align teeth. Some adults choose to get veneers instead of braces to serve as a purely cosmetic fix. However, these are quite expensive, may need to be replaced at some point in life, and do not actually correct any bite issues.

There's no set "best" age to get braces. For most kids, the best time for braces is generally between ages 8 and 14, when a child's mouth and head are still growing and the permanent teeth are erupting. The exact time depends on growth and on how quickly a child's adult teeth come in. However, braces can still be effective in older teenagers and adults.

Phase I, also known as "early intervention", refers to orthodontic treatment that occurs before a child has all of their permanent teeth. This usually happens between ages 7-10. Phase I treatment doesn't always function as a complete replacement for braces - its purpose is to fix problems that are most easily corrected at an early age and to make the Phase II treatment (braces) easier.

To put it simply, Phase I takes care of the initial structural (skeletal) corrections so that braces can make more refined (dental) corrections and finish the job. Some orthodontic problems like under bites/cross bites, large over bites, severe crowding, severely protruded front teeth, and narrow jaws are easier to correct at a younger age. Early correction often leads to easier and more predictable treatment after all of the permanent teeth have erupted.

Early intervention can also decrease the need to extract permanent teeth in the future, correct harmful habits like thumb-sucking, tongue-thrusting, and speech problems, reduce the risk of tooth trauma to protruded front teeth, eliminate the need for later corrective surgery, and reduce teasing caused by abnormally crooked teeth.

Between Phase I and II, kids may wear a retainer or space maintainer to maintain their progress, and should continue visiting their Dentist so he or she can check on jaw and tooth development. Phase II, sometimes just called "active treatment", consists of full braces. It's designed to finish straightening the teeth and correcting the bite once all the permanent teeth have come in.

On average, most kids wear braces for 1 to 3 years, but this can vary greatly for each person based on growth and the severity of the problem. It also depends on the cooperation of the patient, including maintaining good oral hygiene, wearing auxiliaries such as rubber bands as directed, avoiding damaging food, and keeping all of their follow-up appointments.

This is a subjective choice, but braces can still be quite effective for adults and modern styles are much less noticeable than the braces that many adults remember. In fact, about 20% of patients with braces are over 18. Many adults decide to get braces because they couldn't afford them as a kid and now can, or because their teeth have shifted with age. Getting braces, even as an adult can give you decades of more attractive straight teeth and correct serious structural problems, so many people see them as a worthwhile investment.

Some people may get braces for mostly cosmetic reasons but there are also a number of health benefits to straighter teeth. Straight teeth are easier to clean well, which reduces tooth decay and gingivitis. Correcting the bite also fixes many structural problems, which can reduce jaw pain and make chewing less painful.

No. They may not exactly be enjoyable, but they're less noticeable, less painful, and more efficient than you remember. You can now get clear brackets or Invisalign for a less noticeable look, and even "traditional" metal brackets are much smaller than in the past. New heat-activated wires move teeth with constant, more gradual pressure, so each adjustment hurts less and teeth realign more quickly. Computer technology in orthodontics has also improved greatly, giving us "smart" wires and brackets that move teeth faster and more efficiently.

Braces or not, it’s always recommended to eat a well-balanced diet for its renowned health benefits. Cut healthy, hard foods like carrots or apples into smaller pieces. This makes them less a threat to your braces.

If you have braces, it’s important to avoid special foods that can increase your risk for cavities or damage your braces. Cut down on sweets, chips and soda. Sugary and starchy foods generate plaque acid and that can cause tooth decay and promote gum disease. Sticky, chewy sweets like caramel, fudges and toffee can also cause wire damage and loosen brackets.

You should also stay away from hard, crunchy snacks. These types of snacks, including popcorn, nuts and hard candy, can break braces or make their impact less effective.

Lastly, your child should also remember that the elements of braces on teeth (the so-called ligatures) may become stained. That’s why they should avoid eating foods containing strong colorants, such as beetroots, blackcurrants, berries, curry sauce, or grape juice.

When you wear braces, plaque has more places to accumulate and build up. Learn how our electric toothbrushes more effectively clean around braces to remove plaque and help prevent gum disease.
What You Can't Eat with Braces.

Gold, dark blue, turquoise, orange, green, violet or pink may look super if you have a darker skin tone.
Lighter blue, bronze, darker purples or blues and subdued tones of red or pink might complement a lighter skin tone.
Darker colours may make your teeth appear whiter.

As long as your teen is following their Dentist’s advice and proper care instructions for their braces, then the colours of their braces will not make a difference.

However, just like a white shirt, your white and clear bands may be prone to staining if you’re particularly fond of colourful foods like tomato sauce and curry. If you want a subtle look and want to avoid staining, then go for silver or grey bands to better blend in with the brackets.

As your primary school art classes taught you, some colours are more complimentary than others. If your teen has slightly yellow teeth, then white bands may make them appear more yellow by comparison. In contrast, black or dark blue braces may make their teeth look whiter by comparison.

The plastic modules that secure the arch wire to the individual tooth brackets – also known as ligatures or O-rings – can be changed to allow the wire to be changed or tightened.

There are a wide variety of possible colours to choose from. However, more subtle options are available. Your Dentist will ask which colour bands you would like at each appointment – and that’s where you can get creative.

Here are some of the popular braces colours for teens:

Team colours
Show your support for your favourite sporting club by wearing their colours on your teeth. It could be the team you support or even the team you play for to really show your team spirit.

Match your favourite clothes
If you find yourself always gravitating towards the same coloured clothes, then keep your braces in line with your personal style for a cohesive look.

Get festive
Let your teeth celebrate key milestones throughout the year with braces colours that match the decorations. Think pink and red for Valentine’s Day, red and green for Christmas or orange and black for Halloween. Just be aware that unless you need an emergency orthodontic appointment (such as when you dislodge a bracket or break your wire) you’re likely to have the colours even after the special date or holiday has passed.

Flow with the seasons
Why not try matching your braces to the weather outside? Neon colours in the brightness of summer, or more understated cool colours in winter. Interpret the seasons in your own way with your smile.

Make it your own
While the actual colours available at your Dentist may vary depending on the brand that they use, it is an opportunity to do things your way. Ask to see their colour options so you can plan ahead for your next appointment and create a colour combination that’s entirely your own.

Demineralization sounds pretty serious, and it is. It occurs when food left on teeth comes in contact with bacteria, creating acid. This acid robs teeth of calcium and phosphate, causing decalcification or "white scars". White scars look like chalky little white squares that outline the area where braces once were. These white spots can also be very sensitive. It's important to note that braces themselves do not cause staining - anyone who doesn't care for their teeth well can have white scars. However, people with braces are more prone to decalcification because braces act as an excellent trap for food. Unfortunately, these demineralization stains are usually permanent and can lead to cavities. You can avoid demineralization by brushing after every meal, flossing once a day, and cutting back on soda.

• Gingivitis occurs when the tissues around the teeth become inflamed and it's the initial form of gum disease. Sufferers may experience bleeding, tenderness, redness, or swelling. Gingivitis is reversible, but don't ignore it! It can also increase the time that kids have to spend in braces.
• Anyone can develop gingivitis, but the challenge of cleaning around the gum line with braces means that braces wearers should be especially vigilant. To help prevent it, be sure to brush after every meal and floss at least once a day.
• Sensitivity can occur when the underlying layer of your teeth becomes exposed as a result of receding gum tissue. The roots of your teeth, which are not covered by protective hard enamel, contain thousands of tiny tubules leading to the tooth's nerve centre (the pulp). When exposed, these tubules allow stimuli - such as hot or cold food - to stimulate the nerve in your tooth, causing the pain you feel. With sensitivity, you may feel pain when consuming hot, cold, or sweet drinks or food, or even when breathing cold air. It is normal for teeth to be temporarily sensitive after an adjustment, but let your Dentist know if you have chronically sensitive teeth.
• Anyone can suffer from sensitivity, but braces wearers can be especially susceptible to it.This is because braces are more difficult to clean around, and poor oral care can lead to an irritated or receding gum line. To help prevent sensitivity, brush thoroughly after every meal and floss at least once a day.
• Plaque is a colourless, sticky film of bacteria that constantly forms in the mouth. It is produced from the combination of saliva and food particles. Plaque combines with sugars to form an acid that is dangerous to teeth and gums, and it causes tooth decay, gum disease, tartar, and other dental problems. Everyone suffers from plaque, but as with other dental problems, the challenges of cleaning around braces mean that braces wearers must be especially careful about fighting it. Plaque begins forming only 4 to 12 hours after brushing, which is why it's so important to brush at least twice a day and floss daily.
• Tartar, sometimes called calculus, is formed when plaque is left on the tooth surface and hardens. It's a crusty deposit that can trap stains on teeth and cause discoloration. Tartar can start to develop after only 24 hours, and can make it more difficult to remove newly-formed plaque. It can form along the gum line, just under the gums, and around braces and other orthodontic appliances. Regular brushing and flossing is essential for preventing tartar. Once tartar has formed, only a dentist or hygienist can remove it.

Bad Breath
• Bad breath, also known as halitosis, is usually caused by poor oral hygiene, medical problems, or habits such as smoking or eating certain foods. However, bad breath that develops only after getting braces is almost certainly caused by poor oral hygiene. Bacteria feeds on food particles left in your mouth, and this bacteria creates odour. This means that any tiny bits of food that is stuck in brackets or between teeth will contribute to bad breath.
• Because braces contain so many small spaces to trap food, the habits that worked great for cleaning your teeth before braces may no longer be enough. It's important to brush immediately after every meal or snack, or to at least vigorously rinse your teeth with water or mouthwash if you absolutely can't brush. Bad breath-causing doors and bacteria can also cling to removable orthodontics (like a retainer or clear aligners) so be sure to remove them before eating, even if you're only eating a small amount.

There are many factors that contribute to the overall cost of having braces, including the type of treatment you’re receiving, the duration of your treatment and also your Dentist’s practice overheads. Generally, any of the above treatment methods, including Invisalign®, can cost you between $4500 to $6000, 000 for a full 18-24 month treatment plan, however each case is different and the only way to know the costs would be to have a consultation with an Dentist.